Documente online.
Username / Parola inexistente
  Zona de administrare documente. Fisierele tale  
Am uitat parola x Creaza cont nou
  Home Exploreaza



























The International Monetary Found (IMF)

economy











ALTE DOCUMENTE

Visa requirements
LETTER OF APPOINTMENT & EMPLOYMENT AGREEMENT
IF SOMEONE OWES YOU MONEY
Want to Get More at the Bargaining Table? Learn to Flinch at Proposals by Roger Dawson
BOOKKEEPING MADE SIMPLE
STRUCTURE OF SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBERS
Income Statement Analysis
Aspartame History of fraud and deception
MODELLING (SIMULATION) OF ECONOMIC REGULATIONS
Turabo BCR Café - Team Report




The International Monetary Found (IMF)

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization that oversees the global financial system by observing exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering financial and technical assistance. Its headquarters are located in Washington, D.C., USA.

Contents

  • 1 Organization and purpose
    • 1.1 History
    • 1.2 Today
  • 2 Data Dissemination Systems
  • 3 Membership qualifications
  • 4 IMF Members' Quotas and Voting Power, and IMF Board of Governors
  • 5 Assistance and reforms
  • 6 IMF/World Bank support of Military Dictatorships
  • 7 Criticism
  • 8 Past managing directors
  • 9 See also
  • 10 Notes
  • 11 References
  • 12 External links

Organization and purpose

Headquarters in Washington D.C.

The IMF describes itself as "an organization of 185 countries (Montenegro being the 185th, as of January 18, 2007), working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty". With the exception of North Korea, Cuba, Andorra, Monaco, Liechtenstein, Tuvalu, and Nauru, all UN member states participate directly in the IMF. Some are represented by other member states on a 24-member Executive Board but all member countries are members of the IMF's Board of Governors.[citation needed]

History

In the Great Depression of the 1930s, economic activity in the major industrial nations slumped. Ricardian comparative advantage states that all countries gain from trade without restrictions. It is noteworthy to mention that, although the "size of the pie" is enhanced according to this theory of free trade, improving all industries, when distributional concerns are taken into account, there are always industries that lose out even as others benefit in any given country.

As World War II came to a close, the leading allied countries considered various plans to restore order to international monetary relations, and at the Bretton Woods conference the IMF emerged. The founding members drafted a charter (or Articles of Agreement) of an international institution to oversee the international monetary system and to promote both the elimination of exchange restrictions relating to trade in goods and services, and the stability of exchange rates.

The IMF came into life on December 27, 1945, when the first 29 countries signed its Articles of Agreement. The statutory purposes of the IMF today are the same as when they were formulated in 1944 (see Box 5).

Today

From the end of World War II until the late-1970s, the capitalist world experienced unprecedented growth in real incomes. (Since then, the integration of China and Eastern and Central Europe into the capitalist system has added substantially to the growth of the system.) Within the capitalist system, the benefits of growth have not flowed equally to all (either within or among nations) but overall there has been an increase in prosperity that contrasts starkly with the conditions within capitalist countries during the interwar period. The lack of a recurring global depression is probably due to improvements in the conduct of international economic policies that have encouraged the growth of international trade and helped smooth the economic cycle of boom and bust.

In the decades since World War II, apart from rising prosperity, the world economy and monetary system have undergone other major changes that have increased the importance and relevance of the purposes served by the IMF, but that has also required the IMF to adapt and reform. Rapid advances in technology and communications have contributed to the increasing international integration of markets and to closer linkages among national economies. As a result, financial crises, when they erupt, now tend to spread more rapidly among countries.

The IMF's influence in the global economy steadily increased as it accumulated more members. The number of IMF member countries has more than quadrupled from the 44 states involved in its establishment, reflecting in particular the attainment of political independence by many developing countries and more recently the collapse of the Soviet bloc. The expansion of the IMF's membership, together with the changes in the world economy, have required the IMF to adapt in a variety of ways to continue serving its purposes effectively.

During April 2007 Ecuador announced its intention to withdraw from the IMF, followed by Venezuela which made this step public on April 30, 2007. As of September 2007, both countries have continued their membership status.

[edit] Data Dissemination Systems

IMF Data Dissemination Systems participants:

IMF member using SDDS

IMF member, using GDDS

IMF member, not using any of the DDSystems

non-IMF entity using SDDS

non-IMF entity using GDDS

no interaction with the IMF

In 1995, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) began work on data dissemination standards with the view of guiding IMF member countries to disseminate their economic and financial data to the public. The International Monetary and Financial Committee (IMFC) endorsed the guidelines for the dissemination standards and they were split into two tiers: The General Data Dissemination System (GDDS) and the Special Data Dissemination Standard (SDDS).

The IMF executive board approved the SDDS and GDDS in 1996 and 1997 respectively and subsequent amendments were published in a revised "Guide to the General Data Dissemination System". The system is aimed primarily at statisticians and aims to improve many aspects of statistical systems in a country. It is also part of the World Bank Millennium Development Goals and Poverty Reduction Strategic Papers.

The IMF established a system and standard to guide members in the dissemination to the public of their economic and financial data. Currently there are two such systems: General Data Dissemination System (GDDS) and its superset Special Data Dissemination System (SDDS), for those member countries having or seeking access to international capital markets.

The primary objective of the GDDS is to encourage IMF member countries to build a framework to improve data quality and increase statistical capacity building. This will involve the preparation of metadata describing current statistical collection practices and setting improvement plans. Upon building a framework, a country can evaluate statistical needs, set priorities in improving the timeliness, transparency, reliability and accessibility of financial and economic data.

Some countries initially used the GDDS, but lately upgraded to SDDS.

Some entities that are not themselves IMF members also contribute statistical data to the systems:

Membership qualifications

Any country may apply for membership to the IMF. The application will be considered first by the IMF's Executive Board. After its consideration, the Executive Board will submit a report to the Board of Governors of the IMF with recommendations in the form of a "Membership Resolution." These recommendations cover the amount of quota in the IMF, the form of payment of the subscription, and other customary terms and conditions of membership. After the Board of Governors has adopted the "Membership Resolution," the applicant state needs to take the legal steps required under its own law to enable it to sign the IMF's Articles of Agreement and to fulfil the obligations of IMF membership.

A member's quota in the IMF determines the amount of its subscription, its voting weight, its access to IMF financing, and its allocation of Special Drawing Rights (SDRs). A member state cannot unilaterally increase its quota - increases must be approved by the Executive Board and are linked to formulas that include many variables such as the size of a country in the world economy. For example, in 2001, China was prevented from increasing its quota as high as it wished, ensuring it remained at the level of the smallest G7 economy (Canada).[1] Since then, its contribution has been allowed to be increased slightly further.

As of 2006, participating nations were discussing changes to the voting formula, to increase equity.[2]

IMF Members' Quotas and Voting Power, and IMF Board of Governors

Table showing the top 20 member countries in terms of voting power:[3]

IMF Member Country  ↓

Quota: Millions of SDRs  ↓

Quota: Percentage of Total  ↓

Governor  ↓

Alternate Governor  ↓

Votes: Number  ↓

Votes: Percentage of Total  ↓

Australia

3236.4

1.49

Peter Costello

Ken Henry

32614

1.47

Belgium

4605.2

2.12

Guy Quaden

Jean-Pierre Arnoldi

46302

2.09

Brazil

3036.1

1.4

Guido Mantega

Henrique de Campos Meirelles

30611

1.38

Canada

6369.2

2.93

Jim Flaherty

David A. Dodge

63942

2.89

China

8090.1

3.72

ZHOU Xiaochuan

HU Xiaolian

81151

3.66

France

10738.5

4.94

Christine Lagarde

Christian Noyer

107635

4.86

Germany

13008.2

5.99

Axel A. Weber

Peer Steinbrück

130332

5.88

India

4158.2

1.91

P. Chidambaram

Yaga V. Reddy

41832

1.89

Italy

7055.5

3.25

Tommaso Padoa-Schioppa

Mario Draghi

70805

3.2

Japan

13312.8

6.13

Koji Omi

Toshihiko Fukui

133378

6.02

Korea

2927.3

1.35

Okyu Kwon

Seong Tae Lee

29523

1.33

Mexico

3152.8

1.45

Agustín Carstens

Guillermo Ortiz

31778

1.43

Netherlands

5162.4

2.38

A.H.E.M. Wellink

L.B.J. van Geest

51874

2.34

Russian Federation

5945.4

2.74

Aleksei Kudrin

Sergey Ignatiev

59704

2.7

Saudi Arabia

6985.5

3.21

Ibrahim A. Al-Assaf

Hamad Al-Sayari

70105

3.17

Spain

3048.9

1.4

Pedro Solbes

Miguel Fernández Ordóńez

30739

1.39

Sweden

2395.5

1.1

Stefan Ingves

Per Jansson

24205

1.09

Switzerland

3458.5

1.59

Jean-Pierre Roth

Hans-Rudolf Merz

34835

1.57

United Kingdom

10738.5

4.94

Alistair Darling

Mervyn King

107635

4.86

United States

37149.3

17.09

Henry Paulson

Ben Bernanke

371743

16.79

Venezuela

2659.1

1.22

Gastón Parra Luzardo

Rodrigo Cabeza Morales

26841

1.21

remaining 165 countries

60081.4

29.14

respective

respective

637067

28.78

Assistance and reforms

The primary mission of the Imf is to provide financial assistance to countries that experienced serious financial difficulties. Member states with balance of payments problems may request loans and/or organizational management of their national economies.In return  the countyes


Document Info


Accesari: 301
Apreciat:

Comenteaza documentul:

Nu esti inregistrat
Trebuie sa fii utilizator inregistrat pentru a putea comenta


Creaza cont nou

A fost util?

Daca documentul a fost util si crezi ca merita
sa adaugi un link catre el la tine in site

Copiaza codul
in pagina web a site-ului tau.

 


Copyright © Contact (SCRIGROUP Int. 2014 )