US Patent 2,218,922 22nd October 1940 Inventor: Ivor B. Newberry
VAPORIZER FOR COMBUSTION ENGINES
This patent describes a carburettor design which was able to produce very high mpg figures using the gasoline
available in the
mpg carburettors to be available to the public.
This invention relates to fuel vaporising devices for combustion engines and more particularly, is concerned with
improvements in devices of the kind where provision is made for using the exhaust gasses of the engines as a
heating medium to aid in the vaporisation of the fuel.
One object of the invention is to provide a device which will condition the fuel in such a manner that its potential
energy may be fully utilised, thereby ensuring better engine performance and a saving in fuel consumption, and
preventing the formation of carbon deposits in the cylinders of the engine and the production of carbon monoxide 717b13h
and other objectionable gasses.
A further object is to provide a device which is so designed that the fuel is delivered to the cylinders of the engine
in a highly vaporised, dry and expanded state, this object contemplating a device which is available as an exhaust
box in which the vaporisation and expansion of the liquid components is effected at sub-atmospheric pressures
and prior to their being mixed with the air component.
A still further object is to provide a device which will condition the components of the fuel in such a manner that
they be uniformly and intimately mixed without the use of a carburettor.
A still further object is to provide a device which will enable the use of various inferior and inexpensive grades of
DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
Fig.1 is an elevational view of the device as applied to the engine of a motor vehicle.
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Fig.2 is an enlarged view of the device, partially in elevation and partially in section.
Fig.3 is a section taken along line 3--3 of Fig.2
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Fig.4 is a section taken along line 4--4 of Fig.3
Fig.5 is a fragmentary section taken along line 5--5 of Fig.3
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Fig.6 is a section taken along line 6--6 of Fig.4
The device as illustrated, includes similar casings 8 and 9 which are secured together as a unit and which are
formed to provide vaporising chambers 10 and 11, respectively, it being understood that the number of casings
may be varied. Two series of ribs 12 are formed in each of the vaporising chambers, the ribs of each series being
spaced from one another so as to provide branch passages 13 and being spaced from the ribs of the adjacent
series to provide main passages 14 with which the branch passages communicate.
The vaporising chambers are closed by cover plates 15. The cover plates carry baffles 16 which are supported in
the spaces between the ribs 12. The baffles extend across the main passages 14 and into, but short of the ends
of the branch passages 13 to provide tortuous paths. Outlet 10a of chamber 10 is connected by conduit 17 to
inlet 11a of chamber 11. Outlet 18 of chamber 11, is connected by conduit 19 with mixing chamber 20 which is
located at the lower end of pipe 21 which in turn is connected to and extension 22 of the intake manifold 22a of
the engine. Extension 22 contains a valve 23 which is connected by a lever 23a (Fig.1) and rod 23b to a
conventional throttle (not shown).
The liquid fuel is introduced into the vaporising chamber 10 through nozzle 24 which is connected by pipe 25 to a
reservoir 26 in which the fuel level is maintained by float-controlled valve 27, the fuel being supplied to the
reservoir through pipe 28.
In accordance with the invention, ribs 12 are hollow, each being formed to provide a cell 29. The cells in one
series of ribs open at one side into an inlet chamber 30, while the cells of the companion series open at one side
into an outlet chamber 31. The cells of both series of ribs open at their backs into a connecting chamber 32 which
is located behind the ribs and which is closed by a cover plate 33. Casings 8 and 9 are arranged end-to-end so
that the outlet chamber of 9 communicates with the inlet chamber of 8, the gasses from the exhaust manifold 34
being introduced into the inlet chamber of casing 9 through extension 34a. The exhaust gasses enter the series
of cells at the right hand side of the casing, pass through the cells into the connecting chamber at the rear and
then enter the inlet chamber of casing 8. They pass successively through the two series of cells and enter
exhaust pipe 35. The exhaust gasses leave the outlet chamber 31, and the path along which they travel is clearly
shown by the arrows in Fig.6. As the gasses pass through casings 8 and 9, their speed is reduced to such a
degree that an exhaust box (muffler) or other silencing device is rendered unnecessary.
It will be apparent that when the engine is operating a normal temperature, the liquid fuel introduced into chamber
will be vaporised immediately by contact with the hot walls of ribs 12. The vapour thus produced is divided into
two streams, one of which is caused to enter each of the branch passages at one side of the casing and the other
is caused to enter each of the branch passages at the opposite side of the casing. The two streams of vapour
merge as they pass around the final baffle and enter conduit 17, but are again divided and heated in a similar
manner as they flow through casing 9. Each of the vapour streams is constantly in contact with the highly heated
walls of ribs 12. This passage of the vapour through the casings causes the vapour to be heated to such a
degree that a dry highly-vaporised gas is produced. In this connection, it will be noted that the vaporising
chambers are maintained under a vacuum and that vaporisation is effected in the absence of air. Conversion of
the liquid into highly expanded vapour is thus ensured. The flow of the exhaust gasses through casings 8 and 9 is
in the opposite direction to the flow of the vapour. The vapour is heated in stages and is introduced into chamber
at its highest temperature.
The air which is mixed with the fuel vapour, enters pipe 21 after passing through a conventional filter 36, the
amount of air being regulated by valve 37. The invention also contemplates the heating of the air prior to its entry
into mixing chamber 20. To this end, a jacket 39 is formed around pipe 21. The jacket has a chamber 40 which
communicates with chamber 32 of casing 9 through inlet pipe 41 and with the corresponding chamber of casing 8
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through outlet pipe 42. A portion of the exhaust gasses is thus caused to pass through chamber 40 to heat the air
as it passes through conduit 21 on its way to the mixing chamber. Valve 37 is connected to valve 23 by arms 43
and 43a and link 44 so that the volume of air admitted to the mixing chamber is increased proportionately as the
volume of vapour is increased. As the fuel vapour and air are both heated to a high temperature and are in a
highly expanded state when they enter the mixing chamber, they readily unite to provide a uniform mixture, the
use of a carburettor or similar device for this purpose being unnecessary.
From the foregoing it will be apparent that the components of the fuel mixture are separately heated prior to their
entry into mixing chamber 20. As the vapour which is produced is dry (containing no droplets of liquid fuel) and
highly expanded, complete combustion is ensured. The potential energy represented by the vapour may thus be
fully utilised, thereby ensuring better engine performance and a saving in fuel consumption. At the same time, the
formation of carbon deposits in the combustion chambers and the production of carbon monoxide and other
objectionable exhaust gasses is prevented. The device has the further advantage that, owing to the high
temperature to which the fuel is heated prior to its admission into the combustion chambers, various inferior and
inexpensive grades of fuel may be used with satisfactory results.
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